Our proxy research and voting services for our Ireland-based European investments is carried out by BMO reo. The approach seeks to ensure an empowered and effective board and management team; approrpiate checks and balances; effective internal controls and risk management; promoting a culture of transpaerncy and accountability; compensation that rewards long-term value creation; protecting the rights and interests of all shareholders. The policy takes into account local practices and is applied in a pragmatic fashion that reflects an understanding of local and international practices. For companies identified as priorities for engagement, where there are unusual circumstances or topics being voted on, or where we have signficant holdings, voting research and recommendatoins are escalated for additional review by BMO reo, and when applicable, exceptions to the policy may be made.
For our US and Canadian investment strategies, proxy voting and research are carried out by Glass Lewis. Each year we review changes to the voting guidelines, as applicable. Across Canada, and by request in the United States, proxy research and voting is aligned to Glass Lewis' ESG Policy.