Engagement starts with ESG research, which can be a thematic company profile, an engagement case based on breaches of minimal norms, or an investment case. Engagements usually start by explaining our engagement objectives to a companies' Investor Relations department via e-mail, letter or phone call, followed by conference calls or meetings with technical experts. Examples of such experts are the Head of Risk Management, Head of Sustainability, Head of Supply Chain Management and wide variety of operational experts. Company roadshows are used when available, but in most cases, we reach out to companies as opposed to the other way around. Depending on how important the issue is for the company, senior management (Board Secretary, CFO, COO, or CEO) may also be involved in our discussions. Finally, if Investor Relations are non-responsive to an engagement invitation, we approach senior management directly. The use of visits to company operations depends on the type and topic of engagement. Roadshows are used when available, but most of the time we reach out to companies instead of the other way around. We monitor the amount of activity per engagement case, making sure cases are engaged comprehensively.