Negative screens are mandated by the Fund's Responsible Entity. Should they change, as happened in 2018 when the fund adopted SDGs, a consultation and notification process was followed as required by the governance structure ofthe Fund. Efforts over and above that are determined by the investment the team as information comes to hand, including using an external data provider to monitor sustainability ratings of all companies in our investable universe.
Positive screen: the team seeks out companies which have a particularly positive impact on E, S, G and/or the ability to address and support achievement of Sustainable Development Goals.
For the Funds without the negative screen, stocks are often excluded from consideration based on specific factors relevant to that stock, for instance a shareholding structure not conducive to good governance (ie dominated by an individual and therefore effectively a private company), poor governance practices (ie we need to vote against directors or remuneration structures consistently, with no result from engagement), poor environmental performance or particularly egregious social impact (for example payday lenders).