We subscribe to a proxy voting service provided by Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS).
Investment managers consider ISS reports, alongside their own analysis, experience and dialogues with the company concerned and apply their independent judgement when reaching each voting decision. All voting decisions are taken by investment managers, and voting decisions are discussed by members of the investment team to ensure that voting policiea are applied consistently. We never allow ISS to automatically submit votes on our behalf.
When necessary, we will engage with company management to improve our understanding prior to voting and we will follow up afterwards, should we decide to oppose their recommendations.