ESG considerations are explicitly incorporated in MN's manager selection& monitoring processes. The managers are assessed on five factors; parent, people, process, performance and planet (ESG). Underlying factors within Planet are the manager's commitment to Responsible Investing (being a UN PRI signatory, having an asset-class specific RI-policy and a companywide ESG-policy), integration of ESG in the investment process (inhouse or externally acquired knowledge, a clear place in the investment process), evidence of integration & reporting (reporting and evidence), voting & engagement and the integration of MN's exclusion policy. Therefore responsible investment considerations are part and parcel of MN's continuous assessment of external investment managers. With respect to appointment of new managers, MN screens upfront on RI. Every manager that responds to a Request for Proposal has to include how it deals with responsible investing. Via a dedicated strategy-specific questionnaire the manager has to show if there is RI-commitment on a board level, whether it has a RI-policy and how ESG-criteria are implemented in the investment process. Also MN strongly prefers managers who are PRI-signatories. If a manager does not meet these criteria and does not show that it will work on meeting the criteria the manager is not eligible for selection. Once appointed, MN includes specific guidelines for RI in the Investment Management Agreement with the manager. These guidelines include the principles for RI such as inclusion of ESG-issues into investment analysis and decision-making processes and an obligation to report back to MN on progress towards the UN PRI Principles and thematic questions such as carbon footprint and/or climate-related topics. All investments are monitored via the 5 P's as mentioned above, of which planet is one. The scores are updated formally at least twice per annum, or more frequent in case of significant changes.