Engaging with company managements plays a critical role in helping to identify, understand, and appropriately consider investment risks and opportunities. Our firm’s engagement with company management teams depends on the materiality of the issue, the responsiveness exhibited by the company to past communications and our assessment of whether such engagement is in the best interests of our clients. Dialogue can range from an agenda item on a regular investor call, to a focused communication regarding a particular issue. Our engagement activities can include meeting with company boards, speaking to non-executive directors, carrying out proxy voting or participating in stakeholder dialogues. In the event that a company is not responsive to our initial engagement efforts, we will consider: additional meetings with management, meeting with the Chair and other board members, and potentially voting against members of the board in order to escalate our concerns.