Engagement with company management is a fundamental part of our teams' investment processes. Through company engagement, we seek to highlight areas for potential improvement and risk reduction, encourage improved disclosure on ESG issues, and commend companies that are making progress in this area. We have guidelines and principles for corporate engagement, which are publicly available on our website.
On occasions where our engagement activities with company management are unsuccessful, we may escalate the issue, for example by writing to, or meeting with, the chairperson or lead independent director, voting against directors who we believe are not providing appropriate oversight, or collaborating on further engagement with other like-minded investors. Ultimately we may choose to sell down holdings in companies where we lose confidence in the management of the business following unsuccessful attempts to engage.