SSA (EMD): All countries we invest in are analyzed bottom-up. We take into account Environmental (for example the effect of Climate Change on the country), Social (for example poverty indicators, eduction, healthcare, inequality) and Governance (for example corruption, rule of law, government effectiveness etc). In order to analyze the countries we use different data sources as well as visit the country in order to build a complete picture. We dedicate a specific part of our country report to ESG analysis. Concerns/opportunities on ESG can result in an underweight, neutral or overweight recommendation. Last year we had an UW on Mozambique on concerns about governance, Mozambique decided to default on their debt. Databases we use take into account data that covers E, S and/or G, like United Nations Human Development Index, World Bank Worldwide Governance Index, Heritage Index of Economic Freedom, World Bank Ease of Doing Business Index, World Bank Dependency Ratio, MSCI environmental data.
Within Corporates (Fin and non-Fins), we fully integrate ESG in our bottom-up credit analysis (100% of our investable universe) as these can translate into higher credit risk by weakening a company's business profile and/or financial profile. Each sector analyst assesses the key ESG risk which are separately reported in the credit analysis and weighed in the investment recommendation (UW, Neutral or OW). Apart from using external research providers, company data, analysts consult the internal Responsible Investment & Governance team if more information is required regarding companies we actively engage with, with regard to specific themes (Climate, Tax principles, Social eg) or to flag our worries regarding a specific company.