Deal teams are responsible for flagging any initial ESG issues at the screening stage, working with the RI team on a due diligence plan to address any issues including obtaining formal approval for expenditures on external consultants, as required, and detailing at the investment decision stage how these issues were mitigated. When necessary, the RI specialist will be a member of the deal team bringing an opportunity forward for a decision. In addition, key ESG concerns are identified proactively on a country and regional basis. These concerns are then confirmed, dismissed or modified as a result of work on individual opportunities. For example, we have identified labour rights concerns as particularly (but not exclusively) pertinent for some US states and all emerging and frontier markets.